VOLUME 44, NUMBER 2, 1996

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (2) (1996)

CONTENTS

Animal breeding

Studies on the growth of rabbits by X-ray computerised tomography.

Romvári, R., Szendrő, Zs. and Horn, P.

135

Measurement of the total body fat content of growing rabbits by X-ray computerised tomography and direct chemical analysis.

Romvári, R., Milisits, G., Szendrő, Zs. and Horn, P.

145

Animal nutrition

The role of feed protein quality in reducing environmental pollution by lowering nitrogen excretion.

III. Strategies of feeding: A review.

Hegedűs, M.

153

Food hygiene

A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of nitrite and formaldehyde from foods.

Csiba, A., Szentgyörgyi, M., Juhász, S. and Lombai, Gy.

165

Pathology

Mast cells in lymph nodes of cows infected by bovine leukaemia virus.

Kolodzieyski, L. and Revajová, Viera

173

Tissue macrophages of calves after high doses of glucan.

Levkutová, Mária, Bajová, Viera, Kolodzieyski, L., Hipíková, Vlasta and Poláček, M.

179

A case of metastasizing ovarian granulosa cell tumour in the myocardium of a bitch.

Sabočanec, Ruža, Čuljak, K., Vrbanac, I., Potočnjak, D., Stanin, D., Vranešić, Đ. and Karačić, Tatjana

189

Pharmacology

Pharmacokinetics of cephalexin in calves after intravenous and subcutaneous administration.

Garg, Satish K., Chaudhary, R. K. and Srivastava, A. K.  

195

Physiology

Ontogeny of the generation of diiodothyronines (3,3’ -T2 and 3’ ,5’ -T2) from triiodothyronines in the liver and kidney during the fetal life of the pig.

Krysin, Ewa and Brzezińska-Œlebodzińska, Ewa

203

Effect of retinyl acetate, ascorbic acid and tocopherol supplementation of the feed on egg vitamin A content in Japanese quail.

Bárdos, L., Sótér, Gy. and Karchesz, Krisztina

213

Reproduction

Motility and agglutination of fowl spermatozoa in media of different amino acid content and pH value in vitro.

Barna, Judit and Boldizsár, H.

221

Amino acid secretion of the hen’ s oviduct during the egg formation cycle.

Barna, Judit, Boldizsár, H. and Zsolnai-Harczi, Ildikó

233

Virology

Detection of homologous DNA sequences in animal adenoviruses by polymerase chain reaction.

Kiss, I., Matiz, Katalin, Allard, Annika, Wadell, G. and Benkő, Mária

243

Infectious canine hepatitis: Detection of canine adenovirus type 1 by polymerase chain reaction.

Kiss, I., Matiz, Katalin, Bajmóci, E., Rusvai, M., and Harrach, B.

253

Book reviews    

259


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (2), pp. 135–-144 (1996)

STUDIES ON THE GROWTH OF RABBITS 
BZ X-RAY COMPUTERISED TOMOGRAPHY

R. Romvári, Zs. Szendrő and P. Horn

Faculty of Animal Sciences, Pannon University of Agricultural Sciences, H–7400 Kaposvár, P.O. Box 16, Hungary

(Received March 25, 1996; accepted May 28, 1996)

X-ray computerised tomography (CT) was used for determining changes in the tissues of growing rabbits. Serial scans were taken on Pannon White rabbits weighing of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 kg (5 animals per group). Twenty-four scans per animal were evaluated, from the scapular arch to the end of the femur. Three-dimensional (3D) histograms were constructed between –200 and +200 HU value, which represented the serial number of scans (24 scans) on the X axis, the density of the picture-forming pixels (in HU variables) on the Y axis, and the frequency of density values on the Z axis. The 3D histograms show the tissue composition of rabbit bodies, with different peaks corresponding to the scapular arch, the m. longissimus dorsi and the hindleg muscles. Fat depots were also definitely demonstrated, with different peaks in the scapular, abdominal and pelvic regions. The volume and the anatomical location of fat and muscle tissue were determined. An abrupt increase in fat content was observed between 2.5 and 3.5 kg of body weight.

Key words: Rabbit, computerised tomography, growth, body composition


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (2), pp. 145-–151 (1996)

MEASUREMENT OF THE TOTAL BODY FAT CONTENT OF GROWING RABBITS BY X-RAY COMPUTERISED TOMOGRAPHY AND DIRECT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

R. Romvári, G. Milisits, Zs. Szendrő and P. Horn

Faculty of Animal Sciences, Pannon University of Agricultural Sciences, H–7400 Kaposvár, P.O. Box 16, Hungary

(Received March 25, 1996; accepted May 28, 1996)

The total body fat content of growing rabbits was determined by X-ray computerised tomography (CT) and direct chemical analysis. Serial scans were taken on Pannon White rabbits at the age of 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 weeks (10 animals per group). A total of seven scans per animal were evaluated, two from the scapular arch, three from the region of the kidney, and two from the pelvic region. The variables of the prediction equations were derived from the X-ray density values of the Houndsfield scale interval between –140 and –50, by adding up the frequencies within intervals of 10. Different models were developed on the basis of the MGLH stepwise procedure and Principal Component analysis. The R2 values of the estimations varied between 0.76 and 0.90. The costs of the CT procedure were reduced by scanning three animals at a time.

Key words: Computerised tomography (CT), rabbit, prediction, body fat content


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (2), pp. 153–-163 (1996)

THE ROLE OF FEED PROTEIN QUALITY IN REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 
BY LOWERING NITROGEN EXCRETION III. STRATEGIES OF FEEDING: A REVIEW

M. HEGEDŰS

Department of Animal Nutrition, University of Veterinary Science, H–1400 Budapest, P.O. Box 2, Hungary

(Received January 19, 1996; accepted February 22, 1996)

To meet the requirements of pigs a better supply of amino acids can be achieved by using ileal digestibility data of feed ingredients in least-cost feed formulation. Digestibility of amino acids can be improved by addition of multi-enzyme products, antimicrobial additives and probiotics. Protein accretion may be positively influenced by beta-adrenergic agonists. An adequate ratio of protein to dietary energy is essential to achieve optimal protein utilization. Nitrogen output can be minimized by improving feed efficiency and by eliminating antinutritional substances with adequate processing. The use of the ideal protein concept helps to minimize nitrogen excretion. Management and animal hygiene also have a significant impact on the overall nitrogen balance in animal production.

Key words: Protein quality, reduction of nitrogen excretion, feeding strategies


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (2), pp. 165–-172 (1996)

A HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC (HPLC) METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF NITRITE AND FORMALDEHYDE FROM FOODS

A. CSIBA, M. SZENTGYÖRGYI, S. JUHÁSZ and GY. LOMBAI

Veterinary and Food Control Station of Capital Budapest, H–1135 Budapest, Lehel út 43–47, Hungary

(Received February 9, 1996; accepted April 3, 1996)

A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure with fluorometric detector has been developed for the determination of nitrite and formaldehyde from foods by the use of hydralazine. Hydralazine reacts with nitrite and formaldehyde under acidic conditions in boiling water-bath for 15 min to form tetrazolo-(5,1-a)-phthalazine (Tetra-P) and triazolo-(3,4-a)-phthalazine (Tri-P) quantitatively. Without extraction, the determination of Tetra-P and Tri-P was simple, specific, sensitive and reliable over the range of 0.003–0.3 ppm of sodium nitrite and 0.02–0.4 ppm of formaldehyde. This procedure using hydralazine is one of the most useful methods for routine analysis of nitrite and formaldehyde in foods, biological fluids and ambient waters.

Key words: Formaldehyde, nitrite ion, hydralazine, determination, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), foods


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (2), pp. 173-–177 (1996)

MAST CELLS IN LYMPH NODES OF COWS INFECTED BY BOVINE LEUKAEMIA VIRUS

L. KOLODZIEYSKI and Viera REVAJOVÁ

Department of Pathological Anatomy, University of Veterinary Medicine, 
Komenského 73, 04181 Košice, Slovak Republic

(Received August 23, 1995; accepted January 24, 1996)

The number of mast cells (MCs) was determined in the prescapular lymph nodes of 109 animals seropositive to bovine leukaemia virus (BLV). The number of MCs was studied in relation to a variety of pathological reactions affecting lymph nodes. A significant increase of MCs was found in T zonal hyperplasia, B zonal hyperplasia, and mixed hyperplasia (P < 0.01) as compared to the control group. There was no significant increase in pulp proliferation and atrophy of the lymph nodes. MCs were mainly found in the medullary cords and sinuses. The possible role of MCs in the regulation of immune responses to enzootic bovine leukaemia (EBL) is discussed.

Key words: Cattle, bovine leukaemia virus (BLV), lymph node, mast cells (MCs)


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (2), pp. 179–-188 (1996)

TISSUE MACROPHAGES OF CALVES AFTER HIGH DOSES OF GLUCAN

Mária LEVKUTOVÁ1, Viera BAJOVÁ1, L. KOLODZIEYSKI2, Vlasta HIPÍKOVÁ1 and M. POLÁČEK3

1Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, 2Department 
of Pathological Anatomy, 3Department of Computer Technique, Biomathematics and Economics,
University of Veterinary Medicine, SK-041 81 Košice, Slovakia

(Received August 24, 1995; accepted February 20, 1996)

Relatively high doses of the soluble form of fungal glucan (50 mg/kg of body weight) were administered to two clinically healthy calves. Hepatosplenomegaly was not observed. Quantitative and significant qualitative changes were seen in macrophages in the medulla of lymph nodes as compared to the control animals. Both the fibrillar and the granular components in the vacuoles of phagocytosing cells appeared to be positive in the periodic acid–Schiff reaction (PAS); an amorphous component was PAS negative. Quantitative changes occurred also in the expression of IgM molecules on the surface of B lymphocytes. The results indicate that glucan can be used in ruminants also in a single high dose.

Key words: Glucan, calf, lymph node, macrophage, scanning electron microscopy, immunoglobulins


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (2), pp. 189-–194 (1996)

A CASE OF METASTASIZING OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELL TUMOUR IN THE MYOCARDIUM OF A BITCH

Ruža SABOČANEC1, K. ČULJAK1, I. VRBANAC1, D. POTOČNJAK2, D. STANIN3
Đ. VRANEŠIĆ4 and Tatjana KARAČIĆ1

1Department of Pathology; 2Clinic of Internal Medicine; 3Department of Radiology, 
Ultrasound Diagnostic and Physical Therapy, Veterinary Faculty, University of Zagreb, Heinzelova 55, P.O. Box 190, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia; 
4New Hospital Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

(Received October 18, 1995; accepted February 6, 1996)

Clinical examinations including X-ray analysis, gross pathological, histopathological and ultrastructural investigations were performed on a case of ovarian granulosa cell tumour in a 5-year-old German boxer bitch. Radiographic examination of the abdomen revealed a round, sharply demarcated formation about 4–5 cm in size. The tumour of the left ovary was of a malignant granulosa cell type, with numerous metastases 5–20 mm in size, present in the myocardium (left ventricle), lungs (in all lobes) and prescapular lymph node. Ultrastructural characterization of the tumour demonstrated closely packed cells, with rough endoplasmic reticulum, indicating markedly enhanced protein synthesis probably associated with rapid cell proliferation.

Key words: Ovary, myocardium, metastasis, bitch


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (2), pp. 195–-201 (1996)

PHARMACOKINETICS OF CEPHALEXIN IN CALVES AFTER INTRAVENOUS AND SUBCUTANEOUS ADMINISTRATION

Satish K. GARG1*, R. K. CHAUDHARY2 and A. K. SRIVASTAVA2

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Himachal Pradesh Agricultural 
University, Palampur–176062, India; 2Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana–141004, India

(Received October 31, 1994; accepted February 2, 1996)

The pharmacokinetics of cephalexin was investigated in male calves following a single intravenous (i.v.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) administration (10 mg/kg). The distribution rate constant and distribution half-life were 3.34 ¹ 1.22 h–1 and 0.32 ¹ 0.08 h, respectively. The values of elimination half-lives following i.v. and s.c. administration were 3.17 ¹ 1.30 and 2.56 ¹ 0.24 h, respectively. The absorption half-life following s.c. administration was 0.09 ¹ 0.01 h. The apparent volume of distribution was 0.65 ¹ 0.16 and 0.46 ¹ 0.07 L/kg and total body clearance was 2.96 ¹ 0.46 and 1.66 ¹ 0.31 ml/kg/min, respectively, following i.v. and s.c. administration. Systemic availability following subcutaneous administration was found to be almost complete (103.08%). The satisfactory intravenous dosage regimen of cephalexin for calves would be 11.3 mg/kg as the priming dose followed by 10.0 mg/kg as the maintenance dose to be repeated at 6-h intervals. However, the subcutaneous dosage regimen of cephalexin in calves would be 8.0 mg/kg followed by 7.05 mg/kg at 8-h intervals.

Key words: Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, cephalexin, intravenous, subcutaneous, dosage regimen, calf

*Present address: Dr. Satish K. Garg, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, C. S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Mathura Campus, Mathura–281001, India


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (2), pp. 203–-212 (1996)

ONTOGENY OF THE GENERATION OF DIIODOTHYRONINES (3,3’-T2 and 3’,5’-T2) FROM TRIIODOTHYRONINES IN THE LIVER AND KIDNEY DURING THE FETAL LIFE OF THE PIG

Ewa KRYSIN and Ewa BRZEZIŃSKA-ŒLEBODZIŃSKA

Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn (formerly: Centre for Agrotechnology and Veterinary Sciences), Department of Developmental and Experimental Endocrinology, ul. Grunwaldzka 250, 60–166 Poznań, Poland

(Received December 14, 1995; accepted January 23, 1996)

The present study was conducted to obtain information on the generation of diiodothyronines from triiodothyronines (3,3’-T2 from T3, and rT3, and 3’,5’-T2 from rT3) as a result of the activity of the tissue monodeiodinase enzymes (MD) in the liver and kidney of pig fetuses and their mothers between 32 and 113 days of gestation. T3-5-MD activity in the fetal kidney during the gestational period was stable and higher than in the liver and in the maternal kidney. In contrast, T3-5-MD activity of the liver was 3–4 times lower in fetal than in maternal tissue in the first half of pregnancy, and in the second half of pregnancy 3,3’-T2 production from T3 in the maternal liver was equal to, or lower than, that in the fetal liver. The activity of MD deiodinating rT3 (3,3’-T2 and 3’,5’-T2 generation) increased significantly in fetal liver and kidney in the last 2–3 weeks of pregnancy and was higher than in maternal tissues. In both tissues examined the inner ring deiodinating activity (IRD) was 5–10 times lower as compared to the outer ring (ORD).

Key words: Fetal pigs, triiodothyronines, diiodothyronines, monodeiodinases, deiodination, liver, kidney


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (2), pp. 213–-219 (1996)

EFFECT OF RETINYL ACETATE, ASCORBIC ACID AND TOCOPHEROL 
SUPPLEMENTATION OF THE FEED ON EGG VITAMIN A CONTENT IN JAPANESE QUAIL

L. Bárdos, Gy. Sótér and Krisztina Karchesz

Department of Animal Physiology and Health, University of Agricultural Sciences, 
H–2103 Gödöllő, Páter K. u. 1, Hungary

(Received March 25, 1996; accepted April 29, 1996)

The ration fed to laying Japanese quails was supplemented either with retinyl acetate (RA) (50 × 10IU/kg, group A), ascorbic acid (500 mg/kg, group C), or with both substances in combination with each other (group AC) and with tocopheryl acetate (37.8 IU/kg; groups AE and ACE). On days 1, 8, 14, 20 and 28, some quantitative parameters of eggs (mass of egg-shell, albumen and egg yolk, retinoid content of egg yolk) were measured. The egg production parameters were not significantly affected by the supplementations. By the end of the second week, the total vitamin A (retinyl esters + retinol) concentrations of the egg yolk were significantly higher in the groups receiving supplemented feed (AC, AE and AEC) than in the control group. Two weeks later (on day 28), the vitamin A levels were elevated significantly in all groups except the group treated with ascorbic acid. From the point of view of vitamin A fortification of the egg yolk, the combined supplementations (groups AC, AE, AEC) seem to be more effective. The results indicate that vitamin A content of the egg yolk can be increased by a short-term RA supplementation of the laying ration. The retinoids present in the natural substances of eggs could possibly be a good source of vitamin A for humans.

Key words: Retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherol, ascorbic acid, egg, egg yolk fortification, Japanese quail


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (2), pp. 221-–232 (1996)

MOTILITY AND AGGLUTINATION OF FOWL SPERMATOZOA IN MEDIA OF DIFFERENT AMINO ACID CONTENT AND PH VALUE IN VITRO

Judit Barna and H. Boldizsár

Institute for Small Animal Research, H– 2101 Gödöllő, P.O. Box 417, Hungary

(Received April 25, 1996; accepted May 20, 1996)

The objective of the present experiments was to study some properties of fowl spermatozoa which may play a role in the sperm storage and emptying mechanism of the uterovaginal sperm storage tubules (SST) of the hen. The effects exerted by different amino acids (aspartic acid, Asp; glutamic acid, Glu; gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA; glycine, Gly) and by the pH of the environment at 24 and 39 °C on the motility and agglutination of cock spermatozoa were studied in vitro. The spermatozoa did not show agglutination in the presence of Asp and Glu, and became immobilised if the concentration of Glu or the acidity of the environment was increased. In neutral solutions of GABA and Gly or in a faintly alkaline solution characteristic plait-like conglomerations could be seen. The motility of spermatozoa immobilised by Glu could be restored in a varying degree by the addition of GABA or Gly. At a temperature of 24 °C, the spermatozoa became immobilised in a medium of pH 6.0 while showed maximum motility at pH 7.1. At 39 °C, the spermatozoa were immobilised at higher pH (6.2) and required a pH value as high as 7.4–7.5 to show the highest motility. Spermatozoa inactivated in an acidic solution could be immediately mobilised by alkalisation of the medium, irrespective of the Ca2+ content of the solution. Thus, Ca2+ was not found to play a role in the reactivation of spermatozoa. Nevertheless, marked differences were observed in the maintenance of sperm motility between solutions either containing or lacking Ca2+. As the concentration changes of the above-mentioned amino acids and the pH changes were found to affect the motility and agglutination of spermatozoa in vitro, they may influence also the regulatory mechanism of the uterovaginal SST during the egg-formation cycle in vivo.

Key words: Fowl, spermatozoa, motility, agglutination, amino acids, calcium, pH, temperature, sperm storage tubules (SST)


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (2), pp. 233–-241 (1996)

AMINO ACID SECRETION OF THE HEN’S OVIDUCT DURING THE EGG FORMATION CYCLE

Judit Barna1, H. Boldizsár1 and Ildikó Zsolnai-Harczi2

1Institute for Small Animal Research, H– 2101 Gödöllő, P.O. Box 417, Hungary; 
2Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition, H–2053 Herceghalom, Hungary

(Received April 25, 1996; accepted May 20, 1996)

The free amino acid content of 34 hens’ oviducts was determined in different phases of the egg formation cycle. In addition, quantitative changes of transmitter-type amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, taurine, glycine) were monitored in comparison with those of other amino acids participating in protein synthesis (e.g., lysine, tyrosine, valine). Different portions of the hen’ s oviduct, primarily the magnum and the uterus, were characterised by substantial amino acid secreting activity. The amino acids detectable in the highest quantity were taurine, glutamic acid, glycine and aspartic acid. These amino acids were present in high concentrations throughout the egg formation cycle, but their quantity abruptly decreased at the time of oviposition and ovulation. The quantitative changes of transmitter-type amino acids are mostly independent of those of other amino acids participating in protein synthesis. Since in our earlier in vitro studies the concentration changes of the transmitter amino acids studied were found to affect the motility and agglutination of spermatozoa, they — besides other factors — can be assumed to exert an influence on the sperm storage and release processes of the uterovaginal sperm storage tubules located in the oviduct of birds.

Key words: Hen, oviduct, amino acid, sperm storage tubules (SST)


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (2), pp. 243-–251 (1996)

DETECTION OF HOMOLOGOUS DNA SEQUENCES IN ANIMAL ADENOVIRUSES BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

I. Kiss1,2, Katalin Matiz1,2, Annika Allard3, G. Wadell3 and Mária Benkő1*

1Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H–1581 Budapest, P.O. Box 18, Hungary; 
2Veterinary Institute of Debrecen, H–4002 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51, Hungary; 
3Department of Virology, University of Umea, S–901 85 Umea, Sweden

(Received April 2, 1996; accepted April 22, 1996)

A primer pair originally designed for the universal detection of human adenovirus (HAV) serotypes of all subgenera was modified then tested and found feasible for the detection of different bovine, ovine, and porcine adenovirus (BAV, OAV, and PAV, respectively) serotypes. Apparently, in the examined viruses, parts of the DNA sequence coding for the basal part of the hexon protein are conserved enough for being applicable in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as primers. Positive amplification could be obtained even from the so-called subgroup 2 BAVs, which viruses do not cross react with HAVs or subgroup 1 BAVs in Southern hybridisation.

Key words: PCR, primer, bovine, ovine, porcine, adenovirus, hexon gene

*To whom reprint requests should be addressed.


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (2), pp. 253–-258 (1996)

INFECTIOUS CANINE HEPATITIS: DETECTION OF CANINE ADENOVIRUS TYPE 1 
BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

I. Kiss1,2, Katalin Matiz1,2, E. Bajmóci2, M. Rusvaiand B. Harrach1*

1Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H–1581 Budapest, P.O. Box 18, Hungary; 
2Veterinary Institute of Debrecen, H–4002 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51, Hungary; 
3Department of Epizootiology and Microbiology, University of Veterinary Science, H–1400 Budapest, P.O. Box 2, Hungary

(Received April 2, 1996; accepted April 22, 1996)

A primer pair and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method earlier tested for the detection of human and animal adenoviruses were used to demonstrate the presence of canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) in tissue culture and clinical specimens. A simple procedure of sample preparation was elaborated making the PCR easily applicable in rapid confirmation of the diagnosis of infectious canine hepatitis.

Key words: Infectious hepatitis, PCR, canine adenovirus

*To whom reprint requests should be addressed.