VOLUME 44, NUMBER 4, 1996

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (4) (1996)

CONTENTS

Nutrition

Body composition of mice of different body condition score and sex.

Fekete, S., Szakáll, I., Andrásofszky, Emese, Kósa, Emma and Hullár, I.

399

Evaluation of the digestibility of nutrients in pigs by ileal cannulation technique.

Szelényi-Galántai, Marianne, Fébel, Hedvig, Szegedi, B., Zsolnai-Harczi, Ildikó and Huszár, Szilvia

411

Pathophysiology

Comparison of some blood parameters of captured and farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) hinds.

Zomborszky, Z., Fehér, T., Horn, Éva, Poteczin, Éva, Tuboly, S. and Kovács-Zomborszky, Melinda

433

Effect of lipid peroxide loading on lipid peroxidation and on the glutathione and cytochrome systems in rabbits.

Mézes, M., Virág, Györgyi, Barta, Mónika and Abouzeid, A. D.

443

Pharmacology

Suspected adverse drug reactions in the Hungarian veterinary practice between 1982 and 1992.

Bernáth, S., Szászfai, Mária, Kulcsár, G. and Halász, Mária

451

Reproduction

Rapid freezing of mouse embryos in ethylene glycol at different preimplantation stages.

Cseh, S., Wang, G., Corselli, J., Nehlsen-Cannarella, S. L., Bailey, L. L. and Szalay, A. A.

457

A comparison of rectal palpation and ultrasonography for the evaluation of superovulatory response in beef heifers.

Makek, Z., Herak, M., Cergolj, M., Barac-Getz, Iva and Rudan, D.

467

Book Reviews

477

Announcement

481


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (4), pp. 399-–410 (1996)

BODY COMPOSITION OF MICE OF DIFFERENT BODY CONDITION SCORE AND SEX

S. Fekete, I. Szakáll, Emese Andrásofszky, Emma Kósa and I. Hullár

Department of Animal Nutrition, University of Veterinary Science, H–1400 Budapest, P.O. Box 2, Hungary

(Received July 30, 1996; accepted October 24, 1996)

After a critical review of recent research on the whole body chemical composition of laboratory animals, especially that of the mouse, the authors present data on the body composition of a mouse line of different body condition score, varying from normal to double-muscled (“culard” , “compact” ) type. One hundred male and 100 female mice of different compact categories were measured in vivo, using total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC method), then by direct chemical analysis performed on day 77 of life. In male mice, body weight and protein content were found to increase while fat content decreased parallel to the increase in phenotypic condition score. Female mice showed a rather constant fat, protein and ash content in the dry matter of the body. The precision and validity of TOBEC data under 40 grams of body weight proved to be insufficient.

Key words: Mouse, body condition score, body composition, chemical analysis, total body electrical conductivity


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (4), pp. 411–-432 (1996)

EVALUATION OF THE DIGESTIBILITY OF NUTRIENTS IN PIGS BY ILEAL CANNULATION TECHNIQUE

Marianne SZELÉNYI-GALÁNTAI, Hedvig FÉBEL, B. SZEGEDI, Ildikó ZSOLNAI-HARCZI 
and Szilvia HUSZÁR

Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition, H–2053 Herceghalom, Hungary

(Received July 12, 1996; accepted October 10, 1996)

A simple T-cannula was surgically inserted into the ileum of growing female Large White × Dutch Landrace swine. Chymus samples collected with the help of the cannula were analysed to determine the apparent digestibility of different dietary nutrients such as dry matter, crude protein and starch, as well as of some essential amino acids. The following three experiments were conducted: (I) of the cereals, the “Tewo" triticale variety fed alone and in 1:1 concentrate mixtures with wheat or maize was studied; (II) waxy maize hybrids and maize hybrids of normal endosperm were compared without treatment and after treatment by the Bocchi technology; (III) untreated and extruded maize supplemented either with extracted soybean or with extracted sunflower was also tested. The ileal digestibility of protein, amino acids and starch was determined and compared with values obtained by conventional (faecal) analysis. When feeding triticale alone or in combination with wheat or maize, the ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids increased as a result of feeding the cereal combinations (e.g. crude protein 72–79%, lysine 75–79%, threonine 63–78%, methionine 74–86%). Comparison of the two maize hybrids revealed that, with the exception of methionine, lysine and tyrosine, the amino acids of the waxy hybrid had higher ileal digestibility. Treatment of the normal hybrid by the Bocchi technology caused a significant improvement in the ileal digestibility of cystine, isoleucine, lysine, valine, and dry matter. This treatment also improved the faecal digestibility of all test nutrients but methionine. Bocchi treatment of the waxy hybrid significantly improved the ileal digestibility of isoleucine, leucine, methionine, tyrosine and valine, and the faecal digestibility of cystine, dry matter, and crude protein. No major variety- or treatment-related differences were found in the digestibility of starch. As a result of extrusion, the digestibility of nutrients of the soybean + maize mixture increased from 61.6% to 70.3% (crude protein), from 41.1% to 59.4% (threonine), from 60.1 to 72.0% (methionine), and from 70.7% to 82.7% (lysine). The same treatment of the sunflower + maize mixture increased the digestibility of crude protein from 80.6% to 84.5%, that of threonine from 78.1% to 80.6%, that of methionine from 79.7% to 84.3%, while that of lysine from 61.4% to 72.3%. The ileal digestibility of starch was 97–98% for both mixtures. As a result of extrusion, most of the faecal digestibility values showed a significant improvement for both the soybean- and the sunflower-containing mixtures. The favourable effect exerted by extrusion on the digestibility of nutrients is markedly influenced by the feed components.

Key words: Pig, small intestine, T-cannula, feed treatments, protein, amino acid, starch, ileal digestibility


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (4), pp. 433-–441 (1996)

COMPARISON OF SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS OF CAPTURED AND FARMED RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS) HINDS

Z. Zomborszky1, T. Fehér2, Éva Horn3Éva Poteczin2, S. Tuboly4 and Melinda Kovács-Zomborszky1

1Department of Animal Physiology and Hygiene, Pannon University of Agricultural Sciences, H–7401 Kaposvár, P.O. Box 16, Hungary; 2Department of Medicine, Semmelweis Medical University, H–1083 Budapest, Hungary; 3Veterinary Institute of Kaposvár, H–7401 Kaposvár, P.O. Box 101, Hungary; 4Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Veterinary Science, Budapest, Hungary

(Received August 5, 1996; accepted November 11, 1996)

In studies on the adaptation of red deer (Cervus elaphus) to farm conditions, some blood parameters of 3- to 9-year-old captured and farmed hinds were compared. The test variables included blood plasma creatine kinase (CK), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, the concentrations of glucose, urea, total protein (TP), serum cortisol, haemoglobin (Hb), and the blastogenic transformation of lymphocytes upon stimulation by the nonspecific mitogens Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA) and Concanavalin A (ConA) in the lymphocyte stimulation test (LST). The effects exerted by a probiotic preparation (AscogenŽ ) on the same parameters were studied in farmed deer. In hinds that had been kept under farm conditions for 10 months, CK activity was lower (P < 0.05) and blood urea concentration higher (P < 0.001) than at the time of capture, while their blood glucose concentration exceeded (P < 0.01) that of farmed hinds. Hinds treated with AscogenŽ had lower ALT activity (P < 0.001) and showed a higher increase in PHA-induced blastogenic transformation of lymphocytes than the control hinds.

Key words: Alanine aminotransferase, blastogenic transformation of lymphocytes, cortisol, creatine kinase, glucose, haemoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, urea, red deer


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (4), pp. 443-–450 (1996)

EFFECT OF LIPID PEROXIDE LOADING ON LIPID PEROXIDATION AND ON THE GLUTATHIONE AND CYTOCHROME SYSTEMS IN RABBITS

M. MÉZES1, Györgyi VIRÁG2, Mónika BARTA1 and A. D. ABOUZEID3

1Department of Nutrition, Gödöllő University of Agricultural Sciences, H–2103 Gödöllő, Páter K. u. 1, Hungary; 2Institute for Small Animal Research, H–2101 Gödöllő, P.O. Box 417, Hungary; 3Department of Poultry Production, Tanta University, Kafr-El-Sheikh, Egypt

(Received August 29, 1996; accepted December 2, 1996)

New Zealand White rabbits (6 males and 6 females) were fed a diet of high lipid peroxide content (peroxide value: 249.05 meq/kg fat) for 21 days. Twelve rabbits served as controls (peroxide value: 
40.3 meq/kg fat). The lipid peroxide loading did not cause clinical signs. The rate of lipid peroxidation, as measured on the basis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in all of the investigated tissues, in the following order: liver > red blood cells (RBC) > blood plasma. Reduced and oxidised glutathione content was higher in the blood plasma (P < 0.01) and liver 
(P < 0.001) of rabbits exposed to the peroxide load. Lipid peroxide loading decreased the activity of glutathione peroxidase in the blood plasma, RBC haemolysate and liver and that of glutathione reductase in the liver. The amount of cytochrome P450 (both CO- and metyrapone-reduced) and the activity of cytochrome c (P450) oxidoreductase in the microsomal fraction of the liver homogenate were also lower in the group exposed to lipid peroxide load. Subchronic alimentary lipid peroxide loading in the presence of sufficiently high levels of antioxidants in the complete feed was found to increase the rate of lipid peroxidation and markedly lower the activities of both the glutathione and xenobiotic transforming enzyme systems without causing any clinical signs of toxicity.

Key words: Malondialdehyde, glutathione, cytochromes, lipid peroxide, rabbit


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (4), pp. 451–-456 (1996)

SUSPECTED ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN THE HUNGARIAN VETERINARY PRACTICE BETWEEN 1982 AND 1992

S. Bernáth*, Mária Szászfai, G. Kulcsár and Mária Halász

Hungarian State Control Institute for Veterinary Biologicals, Drugs and Feeds, 
H–1107 Budapest, Szállás u. 8, Hungary

(Received November 20, 1996; accepted December 2, 1996)

The most characteristic adverse drug reactions observed after the use of home-manufactured or imported veterinary medicinal products in Hungary between 1982 and 1992 included toxicosis, severe local reaction, lack of efficacy, and presence of residues in the edible tissues of food animals. The causes of adverse drug reactions comprised manufacturing defects, lack of chemical or microbiological stability, misuse or extra label use, and neglecting the warnings in the directions for use. Collection and analysis of data relating to adverse drug reactions are indispensable for the prevention of similar cases. The authorities can facilitate data collection by supplying veterinary practitioners with the necessary report forms.

Key words: Adverse reactions, drug, toxic effect

*Address for correspondence: Dr. Sándor Bernáth, DVM, PhD, H–1475 Budapest 10, P.O. Box 318, Hungary


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (4), pp. 457–-465 (1996)

RAPID FREEZING OF MOUSE EMBRYOS IN ETHYLENE GLYCOL AT DIFFERENT PREIMPLANTATION STAGES

S. CSEH1, G. WANG1, J. CORSELLI2, S. L. NEHLSEN-CANNARELLA3, L. L. BAILEYand A. A. SZALAY1

1Center for Molecular Biology and Gene Therapy, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Center for Immunology, Department of Pathology and 4Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, U.S.A.

(Received October 8, 1996; accepted November 22, 1996)

The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a rapid freezing protocol on the survival and in vitro development of mouse embryos cryopreserved in ethylene glycol (EG) at different preimplantation stages, and secondly, to investigate the effect of exposure to 3.0 M EG with 0.25 M sucrose on the survival and in vitro development of mouse embryos without freezing at different developmental stages. To perform the rapid freezing procedure, embryos were equilibrated in Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline (DPBS) containing 3.0 M EG and 0.25 M sucrose (freeze medium) for 20 min and loaded into 250 ľl straws in a single column of freeze medium. The straws were held in liquid nitrogen (LN2) vapour for 2 min and immersed into LN2. Embryos were thawed in a 37 °C water bath for 20 sec and transferred to DPBS supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose (rehydration medium) for 10 min and cultured for 24 to 96 h in HTF (Human Tubal Fluid) plus 4 mg/ml BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin). Significant differences were found in the survival and development of mouse embryos at different developmental stages rapid frozen in EG and sucrose: two cell 43/84 (51%), 4–8 cell 44/94 (47%), morula and early blastocyst 56/70 (80%), expanding and expanded blastocysts 10/59 (17%) (p < 0.05). These data indicate that the developmental stage in which mouse embryos are subjected to this quick freeze protocol affects survival and development in vitro and the majority (80%) of morula and early blastocyst stage embryos survive the procedure. No significant differences were observed in the in vitro developmental capacity of embryos at different developmental stages after treatment with high concentrations (3.0 M) of EG solution without freezing. Further investigations are underway to better understand the reasons for different survival rates of embryos frozen at different developmental stages using the present procedure.

Key words: Mouse embryo, embryo freezing, rapid freezing, ethylene glycol


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 44 (4), pp. 467-–476 (1996)

A COMPARISON OF RECTAL PALPATION AND ULTRASONOGRAPHY FOR THE EVALUATION OF SUPEROVULATORY RESPONSE IN BEEF HEIFERS

Z. Makek1, M. Herak1, M. Cergolj1, Iva Barac-Getz1 and D. Rudan2

1Department of Reproduction and Clinic of Obstetrics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Heinzelova 55, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia; 2Center of Reproduction in Animal Husbandry of Croatia, Planinska b. b., Zagreb, Croatia

(Received March 25, 1996; accepted October 14, 1996)

The superovulatory response was followed up in 14 beef heifers by rectal palpation and by ultrasonographic examinations of the 28 ovaries, on day 7 after superovulation induced with PMSG (ovulation = day 0). Using a B-mode ultrasound instrument (Aloka Echo Camera SSD-210-DX II) equipped with a 5 MHz linear transrectal transducer, ultrasonography was found to be more reliable than rectal palpation. A significantly higher number of follicles (P < 0.049) was identified by ultrasound scanning than by rectal palpation of the ovaries: follicles were more easily differentiated from cysts using ultrasonography, since each fluid-filled vesicle was accurately measured on the screen and presented on the echogram.

Key words: Heifer, superovulation, superovulatory response, rectal palpation, ultrasonography