VOLUME 45, NUMBER 2, 1997

actafejlec.jpg

Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (2) (1997)

CONTENTS

 

Immunology

Preliminary comparative studies on complement fixation, dot enzyme immunoassay, and Western blotting for the detection of antibodies to Mycoplasma  mycoides subspecies mycoides sc in Nigerian camel (Camelus dromedarius).

G. O. Egwu, R. A. J. Nicholas and M. M. Aliyu

111

Purification and characterisation of the hexokinase of Plasmodium berghei, a murine malaria parasite.

Sanjay Kumar and H. S. Banyal

119

Internal medicine

Quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography in the horse: A review.

K. Vörös    

127

Hepatic ultrasonographic findings in experimental carbon tetrachloride intoxication of the dog.

K. Vörös, M. Albert, F. Vetési, Gy. Harmat, Krisztina Binder and F. Szaniszló

137

Nutrition

Comparison of fullfat soybean, sunflower seed and protected fat as fat supplements for their effect on the performance of growing-finishing bulls and carcass fatty acid composition.

N. Eweedah, L. Rózsa, J. Gundel and  J. Várhegyi

151

Parasitology

An unusual location for Ergasilus sieboldi Nordmann (Copepoda, Ergasilidae) on the operculum and base of pectoral fins of the pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca L.).

K. Molnár and Cs. Székely

165

Reproduction

Induction of acrosome reaction in dog sperm by calcium ionophore.

F. Szász, F. P. Cheng, A. Marks, B. Colenbrander and L. Solti

177

Ovum pick up in swine: The influence of aspiration vacuum pressure on oocyte recovery from preovulatory follicles.

K.-P. Brüssow, H. Torner, J. Rátky, M. G. Hunter and G. Nürnberg

189

Weight-length relationships and reproduction of bream (Abramis brama L.) in Keszthely bay of Lake Balaton.

S. M. Sharaf, H. I. Ibrahim and F. Husvéth

197

Physiology

Reduction of stress-induced changes in meat quality with thermolysed brewer’s yeast of high nucleotide content in pigs.

Melinda Kovács-Zomborszky, T. Fehér and Katalin Soós

207

Surgery

Principles of renal transplantation in the dog: A review.

T. Németh, J. Tóth, L. Balogh, Gy. Jánoki, F. Manczur, K. Vörös and G. Dallos

213

Book Review                                                                       

227


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (2), pp. 111–-118 (1997)

PRELIMINARY COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON COMPLEMENT FIXATION, DOT ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY, AND WESTERN BLOTTING FOR THE DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES TO MYCOPLASMA MYCOIDES SUBSPECIES MYCOIDES SC 
IN NIGERIAN CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS)

G. O. Egwu and M. M. Aliyu

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P. M. B. 1069, Maiduguri, Nigeria

(Received March 17, 1997; accepted April 28, 1997)

The serological prevalence of antibodies to Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, the aetiological agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), was investigated in Nigerian camels. Fifty-eight serum samples were collected from slaughtered camels and examined by complement fixation (CFT), dot enzyme immunoassay and Western blots. Fourteen of the slaughtered camels examined had pneumonic lesions. All sera examined were negative by CFT but 7 (12.1%) and 4 (6.8%) were positive by dot enzyme immunoassay and Western blots, respectively. The serological evidence of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC in camels and its likely implication in the epidemiology of CBPP are discussed.

Key words: Camel, Camelus dromedarius, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, mycoplasma, serology


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (2), pp. 119–-126 (1997)

PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF THE HEXOKINASE OF PLASMODIUM BERGHEI, A MURINE MALARIA PARASITE

S. Kumar1 and H. S. Banyal2

1Department of Immunology, College of Veterinary Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana–-141 004, India; 
2Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014, India

(Received September 24, 1996; accepted March 11, 1997)

Hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1) activity in cell-free Plasmodium berghei was 35 and 5 times higher as compared to normal and P. berghei-infected mouse erythrocytes, respectively- Maximal enzyme activity was present in the cytosolic fraction of the isolated parasite. Manifold purification of parasite hexokinase was achieved with Sephadex G-200. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed parasite enzyme subunit in the molecular weight range of 47 kDa with ATP (adenosine triphosphate) Km of 2 mM. Two out of three mice immunised with the hexokinase fraction were protected upon challenge with live parasites.

Key words: Plasmodium berghei, hexokinase, murine malaria, cell-free parasite


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (2), pp. 127-–136 (1997)

QUANTITATIVE TWO-DIMENSIONAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY IN THE HORSE: 
A REVIEW

K. Vörös

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Veterinary Science, H-–1400 Budapest, P.O. Box 2, Hungary

(Received April 9, 1997; accepted May 15, 1997)

Quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) was introduced into equine cardiology in the early 1990s. At first, linear and area dimensions and left ventricular volume were validated by the comparison of parameters determined during in vitro 2DE and autopsy measurements. Based on these studies, tomographic planes and intracardiac reference points for in vivo measurements were established and 2DE values have been determined for healthy adult horses by various authors. These data were similar to each other and proved to be comparable with M-mode echocardiography measurements. However, differences in the measured parameters are due to breed and body weight variations of the examined populations, as well as to technical differences between M-mode and 2DE measurement methods. Currently, little information is available on 2DE values in equine cardiac diseases. In one report, 23 horses with aortic insufficiency had significant increases in the mean values of left ventricular chamber size, aortic root diameter and shortening fraction, and left ventricular thickness was also increased. These values were measured by M-mode echocardiography, but diastolic left ventricular enlargement was also measured and illustrated by the use of 2DE. In another study, 38 horses with mitral insufficiency had increased diastolic values of left ventricular and atrial cross-sectional internal diameter.

Key words: Cardiology, horse, two-dimensional echocardiography, measurement


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (2), pp. 137–-150 (1997)

HEPATIC ULTRASONOGRAPHIC FINDINGS IN EXPERIMENTAL CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INTOXICATION OF THE DOG

K. Vörös1, M. Albert2, F. Vetési2, Gy. Harmat3, Krisztina Binder1 
and F. Szaniszló1*

1Department of Internal Medicine, and 2Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Veterinary Science, H-1400 Budapest, P.O. Box 2, Hungary; 3Ultrasound Laboratory of "Madarász" Children’s Hospital, H-1388 Budapest 62, P.O. Box 51, 
Hungary

(Received April 22, 1997; accepted May 15, 1997)

An experimental study was undertaken in dogs with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication to describe and follow the changes in the ultrasound appearance of the liver. Characteristic ultrasound features (enlarged liver, increased echogenicity with fine, tightly-packed echoes, and loss of echogenicity of the portal vein walls) were seen from day 2 of the experiment, culminating between days 2 and 7. Subsequently the liver gradually and almost completely regained its normal ultrasound appearance. Ultrasonographic findings corresponded to the severity of the clinicopathological parameters, and changed parallel with the results of liver biopsies. Histology of the biopsy samples revealed acute centrolobular lipid accumulation with necrobiosis and necrosis in the hepatocytes in the first stage of the disease. In the second stage, a secondary reparatory-inflammatory process and reparation in the interstitial tissue were seen. In some dogs, ill-defined hyperechoic foci were observed within the liver during the regenerative phase. Hepatic ultrasonography seems to be a reliable and relatively sensitive method for monitoring liver dystrophy with necrobiosis and lipid accumulation and to follow the course of steatosis in clinical cases. Ultrasound-guided biopsy can further improve the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in liver dystrophy.

Key words: Dog, liver dystrophy, ultrasound, carbon tetrachloride, biopsy

*Present address of FSz: Arco Bt, H–2040 Budaörs, Delelő u. 4, Hungary


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (2), pp. 151–-163 (1997)

COMPARISON OF FULLFAT SOYBEAN, SUNFLOWER SEED AND PROTECTED FAT 
AS FAT SUPPLEMENTS FOR THEIR EFFECT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING BULLS AND CARCASS FATTY ACID COMPOSITION

N. Eweedah1, L. Rózsa2, J. Gundel2* and J. Várhegyi2

1Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, 
Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt; 2Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition, 
H-2053 Herceghalom, Hungary

(Received March 14, 1997; accepted May 12, 1997)

One hundred and twelve Holstein bulls (179–203 kg) were allotted to four dietary treatment groups (I: control; II: fullfat soybean diet; III: sunflower seed diet, and IV: protected fat diet) and used in a 120-day comparative feedlot trial to evaluate the effect of toasted fullfat soybean, whole sunflower seed and protected fat (calcium soap) on their weight gain, feed conversion and carcass fatty acid composition. The diets consisted of 45–46% concentrate and 55–54% corn silage. Digestibility, nutritive value as well as degradability were also determined. The apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, N-free extract and crude protein as well as nutritive value were almost similar for the four diets. However, crude fibre, acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibilities decreased with increasing fat level but the differences were not significant. The inclusion of fullfat soybean or whole sunflower seed significantly (P < 0.05) increased the digestion of fat. Ruminal degradability of protein and dry matter were significantly (P < 0.01) lower for toasted fullfat soybean mixture compared to whole sunflower mixture. The inclusion of toasted fullfat soybean, whole sunflower seed and calcium soap in the diets was not effective in improving the bulls’ weight gain or feed conversion in this trial. As both toasted fullfat soybean and whole sunflower seed increased the proportions of C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 in adipose fat tissue and decreased the proportion of C16:0, they consequently significantly (P < 0.01) increased the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids. Whole sunflower seed was more effective than fullfat soybean. However, inclusion of the calcium soap had no effect on the fatty acid profiles in the present study.

Key words: Fullfat soybean, whole sunflower seed, protected fat, bull fattening, carcass fatty acid, degradability of protein, ruminal fermentation

*To whom reprint requests should be addressed


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (2), pp. 165-–175 (1997)

AN UNUSUAL LOCATION FOR ERGASILUS SIEBOLDI NORDMANN (COPEPODA, ERGASILIDAE) ON THE OPERCULUM AND BASE OF PECTORAL FINS OF THE PIKEPERCH (STIZOSTEDION LUCIOPERCA L.)

K. Molnár and Cs. Székely

Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1581 Budapest, P.O. Box 18, Hungary

(Received April 25, 1997; accepted May 15, 1997)

Ergasilus sieboldi infestation of the pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca) is extremely common in Lake Balaton. In the summer and autumn, these parasitic copepods have high prevalence and intensity on pikeperch of more than 20 cm body length. Typically, Ergasilus establish themselves in the folds on the external surface of the operculum and on the base of the pectoral fins, and only a small proportion cling to the gill filaments. Infestation is rare and of low intensity in pikeperch of less than 20 cm body length. The Volga pikeperch (Stizostedion volgense) has low-intensity infestation irrespective of age. The lesions caused by copepods present on the operculum are restricted to the epithelium even if infestation is intensive.

Key words: Ergasilosis of the operculum, pikeperch, Volga pikeperch, Lake Balaton, seasonal occurrence, epithelial damage


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (2), pp. 177–-187 (1997)

INDUCTION OF ACROSOME REACTION IN DOG SPERM BY CALCIUM IONOPHORE

F. Szász1, F. P. Cheng2, A. Marks2, B. Colenbrander2 and L. Solti1

1Department of Obstetrics and Reproduction, University of Veterinary Science, 
H-1078 Budapest, István u. 2, Hungary, 2Department of Herd Health and Reproduction, 
Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 7, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands

(Received April 8, 1997; accepted April 22, 1997)

The sensitivity of the plasma membrane to calcium ionophore (A23187) challenge was studied in dog sperm using fluorescein lectin staining for the assessment of acrosomal status and viability. Second fraction ejaculates from 5 dogs were washed, resuspended in Ca2+-free (EDTA-treated), 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000m M/l Ca2+-containing Sp-TALP medium and induced with 50, 250, 500, 1000, 2500 and 5000 nM/l calcium ionophore. Samples were collected from each aliquot after 30 and 60 min of induction to assess the percentage of acrosome reacted sperm cells (AR rate), viability and motility by fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated peanut agglutinin (FITC-PNA) and ethidium-homodimer combined staining. On each slide, 200 sperm cells were assessed under epifluorescence microscope (× 1250) in a blind manner. The response to ionophore challenge (AR rate, viability, motility) varied with Ca2+ and ionophore concentration in the suspension. A significantly higher AR rate was detected in samples containing 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 m M/l Ca2+ (> 40%) than in that containing 50 m M/l. Acrosome reaction could not be successfully induced in the EDTA-treated sample and in any of the aliquots in which 50, 250 and 500 nM/l ionophore concentrations were used for induction. Motility decreased drastically in all of the treated samples and stopped in that sample where a significant AR rate could be detected. Viability remained high (> 75%) during the incubation and did not differ significantly in the treated and the control groups.

Key words: Acrosome reaction, calcium ionophore, dog sperm, FITC-PNA


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (2), pp. 189–-196 (1997)

OVUM PICK UP IN SWINE: THE INFLUENCE OF ASPIRATION VACUUM PRESSURE 
ON OOCYTE RECOVERY FROM PREOVULATORY FOLLICLES

K.-P. BRÜSSOW1, H. TORNER1, J. RÁTKY2, M. G. HUNTER3 and G. NÜRNBERG1

1Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals, 18196 Dummerstorf, Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, Germany; 2Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition, H-2053 Herceghalom, Hungary; 3Department of Physiology and Environmental Science, 
University of Nottingham, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, U.K.

(Received March 5,1997; accepted April 9, 1997)

Endoscopical ovum pick up (OPU) in swine is a minimal invasive and reliable technique to aspirate oocytes from preovulatory follicles for studying intrafollicular development and oocyte maturation as well as for IVM/IVF-programs. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different aspiration vacuum pressures on oocyte recovery and on the morphology of cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs). Oestrus of crossbred Landrace gilts (n = 33) was synchronized by feeding altrenogest and follicular growth was stimulated with 1,000 IU PMSG 24 h after the last altrenogest application. On day 4 after PMSG application preovulatory healthy follicles of > 5 mm diameter were aspirated laparoscopically. Aspiration was carried out using a two-way cannula and an electronic aspiration pump. Five different vacuum pressures were used: 10, 17, 32, 47 and 66 ml water/min, corresponding to 30, 60, 125, 250 and 375 mm Hg, respectively. Fluids from different follicles were pooled per ovary and the morphology of cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) was determined microscopically immediately after aspiration. COCs were classified into oocytes with intact cumulus (i.e. compact or slightly expanded COC), oocytes with corona radiata and denuded oocytes. A total of 695 follicles were aspirated and 501 COCs recovered. Increasing the aspiration pressure stepwise from 10 ml water/min up to 66 ml water/min resulted in a decrease in oocyte recovery rate. A significant higher (P < 0.05) rate of oocyte recovery (77.4% v.s. 59.8%) was achieved using a vacuum pressure of 17 ml water/min compared to 66 ml water/min, respectively. There was a tendency to reduce the portion of COCs with intact cumulus from 82 to 88% to 77% if the vacuum pressure increased to more than 47 ml water/min. A higher aspiration pressure provoked an increase (P < 0.05) in the number of denuded oocytes: 0 to 3% at 10 to 32 ml water/min, respectively, compared to 10% at 47 ml water/min to 17% at 66 ml water/min. These results demonstrate that variation in aspiration pressure affects oocyte recovery rate and COC quality. Aspiration vacuum pressure of 17 to 32 ml water/min was found to be optimal in swine both for oocyte recovery and COC quality.

Key words: Follicle, aspiration, oocyte morphology, endoscopy, swine


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (2), pp. 197–-206 (1997)

WEIGHT–LENGTH RELATIONSHIPS AND REPRODUCTION OF BREAM (ABRAMIS BRAMA L.) IN KESZTHELY BAY OF LAKE BALATON

S. M. SHARAF, H. I. IBRAHIM and F. HUSVÉTH*

Department of Zoology and Animal Physiology, Georgikon Faculty, Pannon University of Agricultural Sciences, H-8360 Keszthely, 
P.O. Box 71, Hungary

(Received August 22, 1996; accepted March 17, 1997)

The weight–length relationships of bream (Abramis brama L. 1758, family Cyprinidae) were studied in Lake Balaton, Hungary. Fish were randomly collected with a gill net from Keszthely bay between March and November 1995. The condition of bream was investigated monthly, using morphometric parameters of the body, fecundity estimations, and gonadosomatic indices (GSI). The weight–length relationships show that the body weight of bream increased at an approximately 3.4 times higher rate than its length 
(b = 3.41). The GSI of females were always higher than those of the males. The GSI values of females reached their maximum (14.76–22.22) from March to May. Egg diameter is positively correlated with the spawning months, as demonstrated by the relationship found between egg diameter and GSI (r = 0.94; 
P < 0.001). Fecundity estimates exhibited a linear relationship to length and weight.

Key words: Cyprinidae, bream, Abramis brama, gonadosomatic index, fecundity

*Corresponding author


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (2), pp. 207–-212 (1997)

REDUCTION OF STRESS-INDUCED CHANGES IN MEAT QUALITY WITH THERMOLYSED BREWER’S YEAST OF HIGH NUCLEOTIDE CONTENT IN PIGS

Melinda Kovács-Zomborszky1, T. Fehér2 and Katalin Soós1

1Faculty of Animal Science, Pannon Agricultural University, H-7401 Kaposvár, 
P.O. Box 16, Hungary; 2First Department of Medicine, Semmelweis Medical University, Budapest, Hungary

(Received November 6, 1996; accepted April 9, 1997)

The effect exerted by a biogenic performance enhancer of high nucleotide content on meat quality in 20 Norwegian Landrace pigs (90 to 95 kg) was examined. The diet of the treated group was supplemented with the performance enhancer for the last 30 days of fattening. The stress effect was transport to the slaughterhouse and slaughter itself. Plasma creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, glucose and cortisol concentrations, and muscle pH were determined. Serious stress damage was found in the cardiac and skeletal muscle, as indicated by the high CK (980 U/L), LDH ( 1600 U/L) and AST (67 U/L) activities in the untreated group; values were significantly lower in the experimental pigs (458, 468 and 17 U/L, respectively). There were no significant differences in glucose and cortisol concentrations between the two groups. In the control group the pH values were significantly lower and more muscle samples showed PSE character than in the treated group (75 and 30%, respectively).

Key words: Stress, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cortisol, pigs


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (2), pp. 213-–226 (1997)

PRINCIPLES OF RENAL TRANSPLANTATION IN THE DOG: A REVIEW

T. Németh1, J. Tóth1, L. Balogh3, Gy. Jánoki3, F. Manczur2, K. Vörös
and G. Dallos4

1Clinic of Surgery and Ophthalmology, University of Veterinary Science Budapest,
H-1078 Budapest, István u. 2, Hungary; 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Veterinary Science Budapest, Hungary; 
3National Frédéric Joliot-CurieResearch Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest, Hungary; 
4Clinic of Transplantation and Surgery, Semmelweis University Medical School, Budapest, Hungary

(Received April 24, 1997; accepted May 22, 1997)

The practically relevant body of knowledge available on renal transplantation in the dog is reviewed. A review of the history of renal transplantation is followed by a detailed description of the immunological fundamentals of transplantation, with especial regard to the structures directing rejection, the significance of D-LA-typing and the MLR test serving for their determination, and the possible methods of nonspecific and specific immunosuppression. The most important criteria of recipient and donor selection are presented, together with the main aspects and medicinal protocol of prednisolone–azathioprine and prednisolone–cyclosporin A immunosuppression within the framework of preparation for the surgical intervention. Among the surgical aspects of renal transplantation, first the recommended anaesthetic techniques are outlined, then the three stages of the surgical procedure, i.e. donor nephrectomy, renal perfusion and renal grafting, are described in detail. The last chapter of the article presents the physical, laboratory and instrumental diagnostic methods of rejection diagnosis, with special regard to their practical importance and different roles played in signalling the rejection.

Key words: Renal transplantation, dog, immunosuppression, scintigraphy, rejection