VOLUME 45, NUMBER 4, 1997


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (4) (1997)


Internal medicine

Ultrasonographic study of feline lower urinary tract diseases: 32 cases.

K. Vörös, S. Wladár, Ágnes Marsi, T. Vrabély, B. Fenyves and T. Németh


Ultrasonographic findings of renal dysplasia in Cocker Spaniels: Eight cases.

Cs. Felkai, K. Vörös, T. Vrabély, F. Vetési, F. Karsai and L. Papp


Diagnostic value of certain mastitis markers in following up the clinical and bacteriological changes in pharmacotherapeutic studies.

Gy. Huszenicza, T. Kégl, Margit Kulcsár, B. Oláh, Mária Gacs, Klára Oppel, Zsuzsa Stollár, P. Jonsson and Sz. Jánosi



Comparison of the protein patterns of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strains by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography.

S. Bernáth, Gy. Kucsera, I. Kádár, Györgyi Horváth and Gy. Morovján



Extrapiscine development of Myxobolus drjagini Akhmerov, 1954 (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) in oligochaete alternative hosts.

Amina El-Mansy and K. Molnár


Attempts to analyse Anguillicola crassus infection and the humoral host response in eels (Anguilla anguilla) of Lake Balaton, Hungary.

L. Békési, S. Hornok and Cs. Székely



Effects of vitamin E and selenium on some rumen parameters in lambs.

M. Naziroglu, M. Aksakal, M. Cay and S. Celik



Zoonoses in the meat industry: A review.

Janet E. L. Corry and M. H. Hinton


Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (4), pp. 387–-395 (1997)


K. Vörös1, S. Wladár1*, Ágnes Marsi1**, T. Vrabély1, B. Fenyvesand T. Németh2

1Department of Internal Medicine and 2Department of Surgery and Ophthalmology, 
University of Veterinary Science, H–1400 Budapest, P.O. Box 2, Hungary

(Received May 9, 1997; accepted June 5, 1997)

The objective of the study was to describe the ultrasonographic findings of urinary bladder urolithiasis and to determine the diagnostic value of the technique in feline lower urinary tract diseases (LUTD). Physical examination of the urinary system and routine clinicopathological analysis of the blood and urine were performed on 32 cats presented with clinical symptoms of LUTD. Cystosonography was done on all of the cats, while plain radiography was performed on 8 and double contrast cystography on 2 cats. Sonography of the bladder provided the following diagnoses: urolithiasis and chronic cystitis: 24 cases, chronic cystitis without urolithiasis: 4 cases, bladder neoplasm: 1 case, negative sonographic finding: 3 cases. Bladder calculi and/or plugs were diagnosed easily, up to a size of 2 mm, according to acoustic shadowing and/or reverberation and gravitation. When the bladder was empty, it was filled up with physiologic saline solution to visualise its contents more easily. Sonography proved to be a useful technique for diagnosing urinary bladder calculi and/or plugs even when they were radiolucent and for distinguishing among the different causes of LUTD. Although ultrasonography is a valuable diagnostic tool, radiography is still necessary to explore lower urinary tract diseases, especially when cystosonography provides negative results or urethral obstruction is suspected.

Key words: Cat, bladder, lower urinary tract disease, ultrasound, urolithiasis

* Present address of SW: Wladár Small Animal Clinic, H–1037 Budapest, Királyhelmec u. 16, Hungary
** Present address of ÁM: Animal Clinic of Pestimre, H–1188 Budapest, Kisfaludy u. 62, Hungary

Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (4), pp. 397–-408 (1997)


Cs. Felkai1* , K. Vörös1** , T. Vrabély1, F. Vetési2, F. Karsai1 and L. Papp1

1Department of Internal Medicine and 2Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Veterinary Science, H–1400 Budapest, P.O. Box 2, Hungary

(Received May 9, 1997; accepted June 20, 1997)

A retrospective study of eight young Cocker Spaniels aged 9–24 months was performed to describe the ultrasonographic findings of histologically confirmed renal dysplasia. Ultrasonography revealed kidneys of significantly (p < 0.001) reduced volume in all dogs. During qualitative evaluation, two different types of sonographic alterations could be seen. In one type of the ultrasound alterationscorticomedullary demarcation was distinct and the renal cortex was remarkably thin, which histological diagnosis revealed renal dysplasia and secondary fibrosis. Based on ultrasound findings alone, renal dysplasia (renal familial disease) can be suspected when small kidneys with thin echogenic cortex are present in young dogs. An ultrasound image, similar to that of fibrotic kidneys (increased overall echogenicity and reduced corticomedullary definition) cannot be differentiated from chronic inflammatory disease and from end-stage kidneys. Therefore, ultrasound-guided biopsy or post-mortem histology is necessary for the definitive diagnosis of renal dysplasia. This is the first study reporting on the ultrasound appearance of renal dysplasia in Cocker Spaniel dogs.

Key words: Cocker Spaniel, dog, kidney, renal dysplasia, ultrasound

* Present address of Cs. F: Sanovet-Dent Veterinary Clinic, H–1032 Budapest, Szőlő köz 6, Hungary
** Corresponding author

Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (4), pp. 409–-416 (1997)


Gy. Huszenicza1, T. Kégl1, Margit Kulcsár1, B. Oláh3, Mária Gacs2, Klára Oppel, Zsuzsa Stollár1, P. Jonsson5 and Sz. Jánosi6

1University of Veterinary Science, H–1400 Budapest, P.O. Box 2, Hungary; 2Public Health Institute, H–8200 Veszprém, József A. u. 36, Hungary; 3Toxicological Research Center, H–8200 Veszprém, Szabadságpuszta, Hungary; 4University of Agricultural Sciences, H–2103 Gödöllő, Páter K. u. 1, Hungary; 5Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, S-750 07 Uppsala, P.O. Box 7039, Sweden; 6Central Veterinary Institute, H–1146 Budapest, Tábornok u. 2, Hungary

(Received June 7, 1997; accepted July 17, 1997)

Trends of certain mastitis markers were studied in udder quarters (n = 201) showing clinical symptoms of acute mastitis. Besides the clinical examination, before the first treatment (baseline sample), and about 3 weeks later, 17 to 24 days following the last treatment (control sample) milk samples were collected for bacteriological identification of the mastitis pathogens and for the determination of certain inflammatory markers: somatic cell count (SCC), N-acetyl-b -D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) and a 1-antitrypsin (ATR) activities, as well as bovine serum albumin (BSA) and chloride (Cl–) concentrations. Based upon the clinical and bacteriological status as well as the SCC recorded at the control investigations, 6 groups were established (recovered, latently infected, subclinical mastitis: bacteriologically positive and negative, as well as clinical mastitis: bacteriologically positive and negative). As compared to the baseline samples, all parameters decreased in the case of recovered udder quarters, as well as in those with abated latent infection or subclinical mastitis at the time of control examination. Comparing the control samples of the different categories, characteristic differences were found in NAGase activity, indicating the grade of cytodamaging effect of mastitis. Of the other markers, ATR and Cl– proved to be more adequate for the differentiation than BSA. It can be concluded that, in addition to SCC, first of all NAGase can be recommended for use as an inflammatory parameter in pharmacodynamic studies. Besides these two parameters, ATR and Cl– can also be chosen as a possible third marker.

Key words: Bovine mastitis, somatic cell count (SCC), N-acetyl-b -D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), 
1-antitrypsin (ATR), bovine serum albumin (BSA), chloride (Cl–)

Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (4), pp. 417-–425 (1997)


S. Bernáth, Gy. Kucsera, I. Kádár, Györgyi Horváth and Gy. Morovján

Hungarian State Institute for the Control of Veterinary Biologicals, Drugs and Feeds,
H–1107 Budapest, Szállás u. 8, Hungary

(Received May 22, 1997; accepted July 10, 1997)

The proteins of 12 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strains were radiolabelled with L-[35S] methionine, and the protein fractions were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and autoradiography. The strains were found to differ from each other in their protein patterns; thus, it was concluded that the method applied could provide useful data for the identification of strains. The described procedure was used for determining the percentage contents of protein fractions of identical molecular mass within the strains compared. The results show that there is no significant correlation between the type of the strains and the percentage of identical molecular weight fractions.

Key words: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, SDS-PAGE, autoradiography, protein patterns

Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (4), pp. 427–-438 (1997)


Amina El-Mansy*+ and K. Molnár#

Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H–1581 Budapest, P.O. Box 18, Hungary

(Received May 14, 1997; accepted June 9, 1997)

The extrapiscine development of Myxobolus drjagini, a myxosporean parasite of the head, operculum and buccal cavity of the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), was studied in experimentally infected oligochaetes, Tubifex tubifex. After infection of uninfected tubificids with mature spores of M. drjagini,development of actinosporean stages was first observed by light microscopy 27 days after infection. Triactinomyxon stages of M. drjagini emerged from the worms after 91 days of intraoligochaete development. In histological sections, early pansporocysts were found in the gut epithelium of the experimental oligochaetes 42 days after infection. Mature pansporocysts, each containing 8 triactinomyxons, appeared 79 days after infection. After rupture of the epithelial cell and the pansporocyst, free actinosporean stages were found in the gut lumen of the oligochaete. Actinosporean stages released from oligochaetes appeared in the water 91 days after infection. They were floating in the water and showed a typical triactinomyxon form. Each triactinomyxon had three pyriform polar capsules, a sporoplasm with 14 secondary cells inside the spore body, a moderately long style and slightly bent, trifurcated, conically ending tails. The total length of the triactinomyxon measured approximately 198 m m. The prevalence of infection in 51 oligochaetes proved to be 9.8%. No infection was found in the control oligochaetes.

Key words: Myxobolus drjagini, Myxozoa, triactinomyxon stage, development in alternative host, Tubifex tubifex

* On leave from the National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Cairo, Egypt; 
+ Student of the Doctoral Program in Zootaxonomy, Synbiology and Hydrobiology at “ Loránd Eötvös” University, Budapest, Hungary;
# To whom reprint requests should be addressed

Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (4), pp. 439-–445 (1997)


L. Békési1, S. Hornok1 and Cs. Székely2

1Department of Parasitology and Zoology, University of Veterinary Science, 
H–1400 Budapest, P.O. Box 2, Hungary; 2Veterinary Medical Research Institute, 
Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H–1581 Budapest, P.O. Box 18, Hungary

(Received May 13, 1997; accepted July 10, 1997)

Since the introduction of Anguillicola crassus into Europe, anguillicolosis has been a considerable problem in several countries. From 1991, periodical eel mortality occurred in Lake Balaton, Hungary. However, eels with a worm burden of 20 to 50 parasites did not show severe swimbladder lesions, which observation cast doubts on the primary aetiological role of the parasite in the eel kill. In order to study the pathology of the infection, from the spring of 1996 until October of the same year, 51 eels were collected from two regions of Lake Balaton and examined for swimbladder changes. To detect humoral antibodies, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed, using cuticular-oesophageal worm antigen. The results of the test show the applicability of the method. However, no direct correlation was found between antibody levels or the intensity of infection and the swimbladder lesions. The low level of specific antibodies and the increasing severity of swimbladder changes in the autumn suggest that parasite-induced immunity is insufficient to prevent reinfection.

Key words: Anguillicola crassus, host response, immunity

Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (4), pp. 447-–456 (1997)


M. Naziroglu1, M. Aksakal1, M. Cay1 and S. Celik2

1Department of Physiology, Veterinary Faculty and 2Department of Chemistry, 
Faculty of Science, Firat University, 23119 Elazig, Turkey

(Received January 8, 1997; accepted June 9, 1997)

The effects of supplemented selenium and vitamin E on a number of rumen parameters such as the population of rumen protozoa, pH, concentration of volatile fatty acids and ammonia nitrogen in the rumen content were studied. Eight lambs were randomly allocated into two groups: a control group and an experimental group receiving vitamin E (DL-a -tocopheryl acetate, 250 mg/kg of feed) and selenium (sodium selenite, 0.3 mg/kg of feed) supplementation. Samples of rumen content were taken from all lambs three times daily once a week (before feeding as well as 3 and 6 h after feeding) over a period of 10 consecutive weeks. In addition, the lambs were weighed at the end of experiment. The total counts and percentage proportions of rumen protozoa, the pH value, and the levels of ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids were determined in the samples of rumen content. The levels of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and total volatile fatty acids, the total counts of protozoa, and the percentage proportion of Diplodinium were found to be significantly higher in the supplemented than in the control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), whereas the pH values and the percentage proportion of Dasytricha ruminantium were significantly lower in the supplemented group than in the control (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in ammonia nitrogen levels. The body mass gain of lambs in the supplemented group was significantly higher than that of the control animals (P < 0.01). Combined selenium and vitamin E supplementation of the lambs’ ration caused an increase in the levels of volatile fatty acids, total counts of protozoa, and body mass gain while decreasing the pH value of the rumen content.

Key words: Vitamin E, selenium, rumen protozoa, volatile fatty acids, ammonia nitrogen

Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 45 (4), pp. 457–-479 (1997)


Janet E. L. Corry and M. H. Hinton

Division of Food Animal Science, Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, 
University of Bristol, Langford, North Somerset, BS18 7DU, UK

(Received June 17, 1997; accepted August 11, 1997)

Zoonoses are diseases, the infections of which can be transmitted between man and animals. Only a few are of importance with respect to poultry meat and meat from cattle, sheep, horses and goats. Advances in the control of diseases such as tuberculosis, brucellosis and trichinosis in animals have reduced the hazards posed to workers in the meat industry and to consumers of meat. However, inspection of animals ante- and post-mortem cannot detect all infectious agents present. This applies particularly to bacteria such as CampylobacterSalmonella, verotoxigenic and other pathogenic Escherichia coli and Yersinia. Protection of meat workers from infection depends upon taking normal hygienic precautions, which also protect the meat from contamination from the workers. Consumers are exposed to a smaller range of zoonoses than meat workers because they encounter only meat that has passed inspection. In addition, heavily contaminated parts of the animal, such as the hide, feathers and viscera have been removed. Further advances in making meat safer are likely to result from the introduction of Integrated Quality Assurance systems. These involve identifying, monitoring and keeping records of the disease status and treatment of each animal (or poultry flock) so that its history is known when it reaches the abattoir. They should also include programmes aimed at minimising colonisation by zoonotic bacteria such as campylobacters, salmonellas and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

Key words: Zoonoses, meat, poultry, inspection, Integrated Quality Control